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Advanced prostate cancer
A tumor that has spread outside of the prostate to other areas of your body is considered to be advanced prostate cancer. Your doctor will perform tests in order to confirm that you have advanced prostate cancer. Men with advanced prostate cancer may have no symptoms.
Androgen deprivation therapy (ADT)
Androgen deprivation therapy, also called ADT, uses surgery or medicines to lower the levels of male hormones, called androgens (including testosterone), made in the testicles from fueling the prostate cancer cells’ growth.
The Gleason Score ranges from 1-5 and describes how much the cancer from a biopsy looks like healthy tissue (lower score) or abnormal tissue (higher score).
Since prostate tumors are often made up of cancerous cells that have different grades, two grades are assigned for each patient. A primary grade is given to describe the cells that make up the largest area of the tumor and a secondary grade is given to describe the cells of the next largest area.
For instance, if the Gleason Score is written as 3+4=7, it means most of the tumor is Grade 3 and the next largest section of the tumor is Grade 4, together they make up the total Gleason Score.
Typical Gleason Scores range from 6-10. The higher the Gleason Score, the more likely that the cancer will grow and spread quickly.
These are synthetically made hormones, chemically similar to natural gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH). With continuous use in men, they block the production of the male hormone testosterone by the testicles and are frequently used in the palliative treatment of advanced prostate cancer.
Treatment with drugs that interfere with hormone production or hormone action, or the surgical removal of hormone-producing glands.
A chemical substance the body produces to regulate the growth and functioning of certain cells and organs.
Inability to achieve an erection sufficient for sexual intercourse.
Prostate-specific antigen (PSA)
A protein produced by cells of the prostate gland. PSA levels are used to help identify disorders of the prostate.
A male sex hormone produced primarily by the testicles that is important in male physical and sexual function and development.